I have a little trouble talking about a "golden age" of Spider-Man, because too often such talk (and not just in comics) devolves into people bitching and moaning about how nothing is as good as it ever was and the past is always better, which isn't really true. With that oversimplification out of the way...
If there was really a "golden age," I tend to think that it was the first couple of years that Peter was in college in Amazing Spider-Man. But not because all of those stories were better than all of the stories told thereafter, because that's simply not true. Still, several of the key characters of the entire mythology, such as Gwen Stacy, Mary Jane Watson, and Norman and Harry Osborn, were introduced in this period. There was a freshness to the title. The series continued to move forward, with new characters, new situations, and characters did progress and develop.
However, Spidey soon stopped being a character and started becoming a commodity. After issue #60 or so, it seemed that Spidey started into a period of creative stagnation, partly because Stan Lee was running of out ideas, and also because if Spidey's aging and progression continued as it had - well, in no time he'd have been married, middle aged, with children and liver spots. Once Gwen "won" the battle for Peter's heart over Mary Jane, she stopped being an interesting character and became the cloying, crying girlfriend, and Peter began to look like a fool in keeping his identity secret from not only her, but from Harry as well. But then again, in the 1960's superheroes did not reveal their identities to anyone - it just wasn't done.
Marvel later began milking Spidey's appeal, first with Marvel Team-Up, as the iconoclastic and misunderstood Spider-Man began teaming up and becoming chummy with every hero in the Marvel Universe. Still, there were some great eras in which I could not wait for the next issue - such as the Marv Wolfman era (#182-204) and the Roger Stern era (first in Spectacular, and then in Amazing), which coincided with Bill Mantlo's run on Spectacular. To me, that period in the early-mid 1980's is the one I personally remember with the most fondness. As much as I always liked Tom DeFalco, I never felt his run on Amazing was very strong.
Like most everyone else, what the titles, and the industry lost in the 1990's when it was overcome with superstar artists, incessant crossovers and "events," it has never really regained - although I am probably somewhat in the minority in believing that the post-Clone Saga, pre-Reboot era was a strong one, even though one or two of the titles should have been dropped. I really liked DeMatteis' Spectacular and Mackie's Peter Parker during this time period (so sue me). Sensational was toilet paper material.
I also thought that 2004 was an exceptional year and that the titles had finally recovered from the post-Reboot hangover, but then the "events" started again, and now it seems that only the "events" matter to Marvel, with all of the characters, their titles, and their stories secondary.
Paul Harvey...Good Day!